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Importance of Web Technology Applications in Pharmaceutical Meetings

Posted on September 29, 2017 in Uncategorized

With many companies in the industry falling short of new and unique compound it is harder for pharmaceutical companies to continue to fork out the billions of dollars in development as in the past. The time taken for a new drug to get the regulatory approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is on an average ten to fifteen years and estimated one million dollar.. With each delay making a blow to the profitability of the concern, the industry is forced to rely on web technology applications to speed up the other processes.

The primary step to be taken by these companies is to introduce the web technology applications in pharmaceutical meetings that enable the participants to have a better understanding on the business needs and to quickly identify the opportunities and advancements made in the technology. With web application tools like teleconferencing and video conferencing creating a stage for easy communication irrespective of the geographical location of the participants of the meeting, the employment of advanced technologies can eradicate the barriers of time.

The pharmaceutical meetings have introduced web technology applications to conduct web seminars or the Webinars. With the pharmaceutical companies using a mix of biology and chemistry, there are loads that each need to be informed about. With web conferencing giving access to the participants to watch an online presentation, besides the facility of sharing desktop, these group presentations and meetings create an effective output. The interaction between the participants gets enhanced when the query put forward by one finds an immediate solution from another.

The platform created by the web technology applications in pharmaceutical meetings permits the meeting and chatting of scientists from any field irrespective of their place of location. The time and cost savings spared through web application-employed meetings is immense.

The whiteboards are a great way for conceptualizing the ideas of the members of the pharmaceutical meetings. Identification of the tools used by others and ways for improving these ensures better outcome. The drawing and annotation tools like the pencils, pens and virtual sticky notes offer an interesting way of carrying out detailed discussions by the members. The web technology applications are also used by the pharmaceutical companies to share a document to which access to a restricted few permits the opportunity to make modifications to the document on a real-time basis, creating a great stage for follow-up.

Semiconductor Technology – Applications and Operations Behind Different Types

Posted on September 28, 2017 in Uncategorized

Semiconductors will not function if they do not possess electrical conductivity. The system takes place in the conductor’s connection with the insulator. This is perhaps the most basic among a list of assumptions behind semiconductor technology. But since this is very basic, there are yet other principles to take note of. In this regard, it pays to take a glimpse of the semiconductor types that are significant in some enterprises.

Semiconductors are very essential in technological advancements especially in mobile phone, computer, television and radio production. They are also highly crucial in production of transistors. In understanding more about semiconductor technology, it pays to take a look at its four types.

First kind of semiconductor – intrinsic

An intrinsic semiconductor is sometimes known as the purest of all semiconductor types. It contains thermal materials that have the ability of lessening covalent bonds as they freed electrons. Part of its work is to go to a solid mass for the support of electric component conductivity. In situations where the covalent bonds lose their electrons, electrical properties of the semiconductor will get affected.

Second kind of semiconductor – extrinsic

Aside from the intrinsic semiconductor there is also the extrinsic semiconductor. When compared to the intrinsic version, the semiconductor technology for extrinsic semiconductors rely upon doped or added particles. With this fact, it is also known as a doped semiconductor. The additional particles play a vital role in transforming the conductivity characteristics of the electrical component.

Here is one concrete sample for extrinsic semiconductors. Silicon, the most usual semiconductor, may be used in order to come up with a gadget. Each atom of silicon allocates four categories of valence electrons through a process known as covalent bonding. If silicon will be substituted by five valence electrons of phosphorous, four of the covalence electrons will be put together while the remaining one will be free.

Categories of extrinsic semiconductors – N-type and the P-type

Wrapping up the four classifications of semiconductors are the two sub-classes for extrinsic semiconductors. One is tagged as the N-type whereas the other is the P-type. The N-type is comprised of electrons and holes. The former plays as majority carriers while the second plays as minority carriers. This signifies that the electron’s concentrations are more than that of the holes.

As for the P-type semiconductor, it acts opposite functions with that of the N-type. To explain further, the P-type semiconductor technology contains holes that play as majority carriers while the electrons become minority role players. In some instances though, there are systems that follow a P-N Junction. This takes place when a P-type semiconductor is found at one side of the system even if the N-type was already made in the other side.

Distributed Generation Technologies – Applications and Challenges

Posted on September 26, 2017 in Uncategorized

The practice of installing and operating electric generating equipment at or near the site of where the power is used is known as “distributed generation” (DG). Distributed generation provides electricity to customers on-site or supports a distribution network, connecting to the grid at distribution level voltages.

The traditional model of electricity generation in the United States, which may be referred to as “central” generation, consists of building and operating large power plants, transmitting the power over distances and then having it delivered through local utility distribution systems.

The practice of installing and operating electric generating equipment at or near the site of where the power is used is known as “distributed generation” (DG). Distributed generation provides electricity to customers on-site or supports a distribution network, connecting to the grid at distribution level voltages. DG technologies include engines, small (and micro) turbines, fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems.

Distributed generation may provide some or all of customers’ electricity needs. Customers can use DG to reduce demand charges imposed by their electric utility or to provide premium power or reduce environmental emissions. DG can also be used by electric utilities to enhance their distribution systems. Many other applications for DG solutions exist.

With existing technology, every industrial or commercial facility including factories, campuses, hospitals, hotels, department stores, malls, airports, and apartment buildings can generate enough electricity to meet its power needs under normal conditions, as well as have back-up power during a blackout.

Distributed generation systems can provide an organization with the following benefits:

* Peak Shaving;

* On-site backup poer during a voluntary interruption;

* Primary power with backup power provided by another supplier;

* Combined load heat and power for your own use;

* Load following for improved power quality or lower prices;

* To satisfy your preference for renewable energy

In conjunction with combined heat and power (CHP) applications, DG can improve overall thermal efficiency. On a stand-alone basis, DG is often used as back-up power to enhance reliability or as a means of deferring investment in transmission and distribution networks, avoiding network charges, reducing line losses, deferring construction of large generation facilities, displacing expensive grid-supplied power, providing alternative sources of supply in markets, and providing environmental benefits.

Power generation technologies have evolved significantly in the past decade, making DG much more efficient, clean, and economically viable.

Substantial efforts are being made to develop environmentally sound and cost-competitive small-scale electric generation that can be installed at or near points of use in ways that enhance the reliability of local distribution systems or avoid more expensive system additions. Examples of these distributed resources include fuel cells, efficient small gas turbines, and photovoltaic arrays.

This report on Distributed Generation Technologies takes an in-depth look at the industry and analyzes the various technologies that contribute to distributed generation in today’s age. The report focuses on these technologies through case studies, examples, and equations and formulas. The report also contains analysis of the leading countries actively promoting distributed generation.